Characterized by biphasic current and selectable parameters. Stimulates sensory nerves to block pain signals. Generates endorphins which are the bodies' own natural pain killer, or in the case of many TENS units offering "Strength Duration" modes, to normalize sympathetic function distal to the electrodes.

APPROVED INDICATIONS: Acute and chronic pain relief.

COMMON USES: Back and cervical, muscular and disc syndromes; RSD; arthritis; shoulder syndromes; neuropathies; and many other conditions.


Characterized by the crossing of two medium, independent frequencies which work together to effectively stimulate large impulse fibers. These interfere with the transmission of pain messages at the spinal cord level. Because of the frequency, the IF wave meets low impedance when crossing the skin to enter underlying tissue. This deep penetration can be adjusted to stimulate parasympathetic nerve fibers for increased block flow and edema reduction.

APPROVED INDICATIONS: Pain control and edema reduction.

COMMON USES. Pre and post orthopedic surgery, joint injury syndrome, cumulative trauma disorders, inflammatory conditions and pain control of various origins.

HOW IT DIFFERS FROM TENS: Deeper penetration with more comfort (compliance), increased circulation and edema reduction.


Characterized by sub-sensory current that acts on the body's naturally occurring electrical impulses to decrease pain and facilitate the healing process.

APPROVED INDICATIONS. Symptomatic pain relief, adjunctively to manage post surgical and post traumatic acute pain.

COMMON USES. Chronic and acute pain, swelling, TMJ dysfunctions, post-op care, sports injuries and arthritis.

HOW IT DIFFERS FROM TENS. Use current at a millionth of an amp (microamp); TENS uses milliamp to "block" pain while microamps act on the naturally occurring electrical impulses to decrease pain by stimulating healing.


Characterized by a low volt stimulation targeted at motor nerves to cause a muscle contraction. Contraction/relaxation of muscles has been found to effectively treat a variety of musculoskeletal and vascular conditions.

APPROVED INDICATIONS: Maintain or increase range of motion, prevent or retard disuse atrophy, muscle re-education, relaxation of muscle spasm, increase circulation, prevention of venous thrombosis.

COMMON USES: Post-orthopedic surgery, joint replacement, strengthening programs, gait training, shoulder subluxation and reduction of muscle spasm.

HOW IT DIFFERS FROM TENS: Stimulates motor nerves to contract muscle while TENS stimulates sensory nerves to block pain; reduces edema and increases circulation through muscle pumping.


Characterized by high volt, pulsed galvanic stimulation, used primarily for local edema reduction through muscle pumping and through the "polarity effect." Edema is comprised of negatively charged plasma proteins which leak into interstitial space. By placing a negative electrode over the edemous site and positive electrode at a distant site, the monophasic high voltage stimulus applies an electrical potential which disperses the negatively charged proteins away from the edematous site, thereby helping reduce edema.

APPROVED INDICATIONS: Maintain or increase range of motion, disuse atrophy, muscle re-education, increase circulation, prevent venous thrombosis, and edema reduction.

COMMON USES: Post-op orthopedic surgery, pain control, sprains and strains, degenerative joint disease and edema reduction.

HOW IT DIFFERS FROM TENS: Reduces edema; pulsed direct current vs. alternating current; able to use in water bath (immersion technique).


Abbreviation for electromyography, the procedure is very similar to routine ElectroCardioGraphy (ECG or EKG). While ECG measures the activity of the cardiac muscle, EMG measures the electrical activity of contracting skeletal muscles. Muscle activity produces electrical signals which can be detected through the skin with surface electrodes. The magnitude of the electrical activity is proportional to the strength of the contraction. Thus, surface EMG can quantify muscle activity non-invasively.

COMMON USES: Muscle re-education, post-op knee rehabilitation, hand rehabilitation, work hardening, posture training, relaxation, stress management training, incontinence.

HOW IT DIFFERS FROM TENS: This applies electrical current to obtain muscle activity, but is not a nerve or muscle stimulator.






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